Since the 1970s, the unequal dissemination of economic resources has sparked discourse among public policymakers to find ways to reduce poverty in Malaysia (Hamid et al., 2019) by placing more emphasis on enhancing the Malaysian population’s quality of life. Nevertheless, racial and geographical disparities in the hiring process have emerged as new barriers that threaten upward social mobility in Malaysia. According to The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica (2020), social mobility is the ability to progress from one level of society to another. Individuals can experience vertical mobility via a change in social class (i.e., industrial worker to wealthy businessman or vice versa) or horizontal mobility to progress from one position to another that is similar. When economic incongruities between individuals are vast they adversely affect the “social elevator” and may create detrimental social and political consequences (OECD, 2018). For instance, when people are faced with decreased prospects of upward mobility, they are less likely to feel their voice matters which increases the likelihood of social exclusion and decreases democratic participation.
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